Sections 4a and 4b Review 

 

For ease of review below we list in one place, and in a printer-friendly format, all of the fallacy definitions given in sections 4a and 4b. Following this listing there is a flashcard activity where you can review the fallacy definitions and names.


Logical Fallacy

Definition: A logical fallacy is an argument based on premises which have historical characteristics known to be only weakly related to the truth of the conclusion, but for various reasons the premises are particularly persuasive.

accidental fallacy

Definition: When an inference is made based on a general rule applied to a particular case where it does not apply, the resulting error in reasoning is known as an accidental fallacy (or a fallacy of accident).

ad hominem (against the person) abusive and circumstantial

Definition: An argument which negatively attacks some aspect of a person making a claim rather than the claim itself is known as an ad hominem abusive fallacy. When some circumstance pertaining to a person's life is attacked rather than the claim the person is making the resulting fallacy is known as an ad hominem circumstantial.

all or nothing fallacy

Definition: When an inference is made based on two options (many times extreme) are given as if they were the only ones when other options exist (which are many times more probable than the two presented), then the resulting error in reasoning is known as the all or nothing fallacy.

the fallacy of equivocation / amphiboly

Definition: When an inference is made based on an ambiguous word or phrase, the resulting fallacy is called equivocation. If the error in reasoning is based on a grammatical ambiguity the fallacy is known as amphiboly.

anachronistic fallacy

Definition: When an inference is made resulting from the misappropriation of concepts and ideas in time, the resulting fallacy is known as an anachronistic fallacy. Furthermore, the misplaced idea or object is called an anachronism.

appeal to inappropriate authority

Definition: When an inference is made by appealing to someone in a celebrated or respected position on a topic which is not in the expertise of the person appealed to, the resulting fallacy is known as an appeal to inappropriate authority.

ad populum /appeal to the people fallacy

Definition: When an inference is made on the sole basis of what the majority of people believe or do not believe, then the resulting error in reasoning is known as the ad populum / appeal to the people fallacy.

naturalistic fallacy

Definition: Any inference which makes the claim that what is natural is good and what is unnatural is bad is called a naturalistic fallacy.

appeal to force

Definition: When force or bad consequences are used to support the truth of a claim the resulting error in reasoning is known as an appeal to force fallacy.

appeal to tradition

Definition: When an inference is based on an appeal to tradition, custom or what has been the case in the past, the resulting error in reasoning is known as an appeal to tradition fallacy.

appeal to pity

Definition: When an inference is made based on an appeal to pity alone the resulting fallacy is called an appeal to pity fallacy.

tu quoque fallacy

Definition: When an inference about a claim is rejected because some trait held by the person making the claim is inconsistent with the claim itself, the resulting error in reasoning is known as a tu quoque fallacy.

argument from ignorance

Definition: When a claim is said to be true or false because the claim has not been proven, or from the absence of any evidence concerning the truth of the claim, then the resulting error in reasoning is known as the argument from ignorance fallacy.

inability to be falsified

Definition: When an inference ignores evidence that shows that a claim is false and asserts that the claim is true under all falsifying cases, then the resulting error in reasoning is known as the inability to be falsified fallacy.

post hoc ergo propter hoc

Definition: When X is asserted to be the cause of an event Y on the sole basis that X comes before Y in time, then the resulting error is reasoning is known as the post hoc ergo propter hoc (or just post hoc) fallacy.

biased samples: confirmation bias and hasty generalization

Definition: When an inductive inference is made from a biased sample (a set of data not representative of the whole), then the error in reasoning is known as a biased sample fallacy. In particular when the bias is caused by previous convictions about what is true or false, the fallacy is known as confirmation bias. On the other hand if the bias is caused by looking at only a few samples and drawing a conclusion about the whole based on those few samples, the fallacy is known as a hasty generalization.

Slippery slope

Definition: When an inference is made from a chain of reasoning where each link in the chain represents only a possible, rather than a probable outcome, the resulting error in reasoning is known as the slippery slope fallacy.

Strawman fallacy

Definition: When an inference is made from a position or argument which has been mischaracterized in such a way as to make it easier to argue against, the resulting error in reasoning is known as the straw man fallacy.

Begging the question and complex question

Definition: When an argument assumes, explicitly or implicitly, the very thing it is supposed to conclude, the resulting error in reasoning is known as begging the question. If a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose an answer, the resulting error in reasoning is called the fallacy of the complex question.

flashcard fallacy review

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