Summary Section 4a

A logical fallacy is an an error in reasoning which has been particularly persuasive or common historically.

When an inference is made based on a general rule applied to a particular case where it does not apply, the resulting error in reasoning is known as an accidental fallacy (or a fallacy of accident).

An argument which negatively attacks some aspect of a person making a claim rather than the claim itself is known as an ad hominem abusive fallacy. When some circumstance pertaining to a person's life is attacked rather than the claim the person is making the resulting fallacy is known as an ad hominem circumstantial.

When an inference is made based on two options (many times extreme) are given as if they were the only ones when other options exist (which are many times more probable than the two presented), then the resulting error in reasoning is known as the all or nothing fallacy.

When an inference is made based on an ambiguous word or phrase, the resulting fallacy is called equivocation. If the error in reasoning is based on a grammatical ambiguity the fallacy is known as amphiboly.

When an inference is made resulting from the misappropriation of concepts and ideas in time, the resulting fallacy is known as an anachronistic fallacy. Furthermore, the misplaced idea or object is called an anachronism.

When an inference is made by appealing to someone in a celebrated or respected position on a topic which is not in the expertise of the person appealed to, the resulting fallacy is known as an appeal to inappropriate authority.

When an inference is made on the sole basis of what the majority of people believe or do not believe, then the resulting error in reasoning is known as the ad populum / appeal to the people fallacy.

Any inference which makes the claim that what is natural is good and what is unnatural is bad is called a naturalistic fallacy.

When force or bad consequences are used to support the truth of a claim the resulting error in reasoning is known as an appeal to force fallacy.

When an inference is based on an appeal to tradition, custom or what has been the case in the past, the resulting error in reasoning is known as an appeal to tradition fallacy.

When an inference is made based on an appeal to pity alone the resulting fallacy is called an appeal to pity fallacy.

When an inference about a claim is rejected because some trait held by the person making the claim is inconsistent with the claim itself, the resulting error in reasoning is known as a tu quoque fallacy.

flashcard activity

spacer
alternative accessible content Click 'Show' to see the hidden portion.
This content requires JavaScript enabled.