**Introduction**

Logic, like mathematics, psychology, history, physics, and many other academic fields is a broad subject with many specialized areas and sub-disciplines. The aim of the first part of this text is to introduce you to the main ideas behind what is called philosophical logic.

In general, philosophical logic is the study of the principles of correct reasoning. This study includes all the tools one can use in deciding how well a claim is supported by a set of reasons given to support the truth of that claim. As it turns out, this study naturally branches to other important topic, all of which can be traced back directly to questions related to how well claims are supported by premises or how claim can be proven, meaning that if the reasons given for the claim are true, then the conclusion must be true.

Even though this is an introductory course, this examination will cover a variety of topics, which include:

- Relations between propositions
- Arguments and argument classifications
- Truth table methods applied to propositional forms and argument forms
- The method of natural deduction
- Sets and basic set operations
- Basic concepts of probability and probabilistic inference